Radiation Protection, according to IAEA definition, is "The protection of people from harmful effects of exposure to ionizing radiation, and the means for achieving this". Dose absorbed can be avoided or reduced in three different ways: reducing exposure times, increasing distances from radiation source and using shielding structures.
One of the most important issues in Radioprotection field linked to the Shielding problem is the continuos monitoring of the activated materials and metals due to diffusion of secondaries in the treatment room. This can be solved with a dedicated custom MonteCarlo simulation that evaluates the dose distribution in the treatment environment.
The main problem dealing with protons or carbon ions beam therapy is the need to deliver a uniform dose with a minimum of
I-See designed particular components, called Ripple Filters, that are able to spread around the Bragg peak preserving its gaussian shape.
Ripple filters designed have a triangular section and they are made of PMMA. Their effect on the beam depends on the scattering and the struggling process that affect different particles types.
Protons have higher scattering and struggling effects than carbon ions.
The effect of a single ripple filter on a protons beam is stronger for low kinetic energies (< 100 MeV) and the filter shape is slightly influent. The use of a second filter on the exit window allows to obtain a better approximation of the gaussian profile. For high energies (> 200 MeV) peak broadening and dose uniformity are no more dependent on the filter like for the low energies case.
The scattering effect on carbon ions is very small and the triangular profile is not able to produce a regular gaussian shape. A single ripple filter is not able to give significant while with the use of a double filter, where the second one is located at the exit window, it is possible to well approximate the gaussian shape. This configuration allows to reduce the distance between the last ripple filter and the treated volume.
4SeePlan - Full MC TPS
Monte Carlo calculations are the most accurate method to reproduce the best possible real data. Computer modelling adopting the Monte Carlo technique can provide a good prediction and estimation of the behaviour of a complex system or process. Supported by web interfaces, I-See is specialized in full Monte Carlo simulations for radiation therapy, particle therapy and radiation protection: this method is regarded as the most accurate one in approaching the physics reality of the problem, since it's based upon the principle of stochasticity and randomness in analogy with nature laws. The problem linked to the use of Monte Carlo method is the calculation resources needed that is solved using software simulations fully supported by all computing services
In particle therapy, the high precision of the beam permits the irradiation of the tumors that are very close to critical structures. This kind of tumor can be irradiated with the best sparing of the normal tissues around minimizing the risk of side effects and toxicity.
I-See proposes a unique solution that sits at the top of our product range, 4SeePlan, a Treatment Planning System that is fully Monte Carlo and includes radiation biology modelling.
4SeePlan interface is web based, available on any system and it has the access to a computing center and to big amount of calculation resources. Once the plan is set up, the user starts the Monte Carlo simulation for that plan with distributed calculations. The whole product is supported by all the computing resources needed to respect the clinical routing planning time.
A treatment planning code for inverse planning and 3D optimization in hadrontherapy, October 2008,
F.Bourhaleb, F.Marchetto, A.Attili, G.Pittà, R.Cirio, M.Donetti, S.Giordanengo, N.Givehchi, S.Iliescu, M.Krengli, A.La Ros, D.Massai, A.Pecka, J.Pardo and C.Peroni,
Computer in Biology and Medicine, 38(9):990-9.
Heuristic optimization of the scanning path of particle therapy beams, July 2009,
J.Pardo, M.Donetti, F.Bourhaleb, A.Ansarinejad, A.Attili, R.Cirio, M.A.Garella, S.Giordanengo, N.Givehchi, A.La Rosa, F.Marchetto, V.Monaco, A.Pecka, C.Peroni, G.Russo and R.Sacchi,
Medical Physics, 36(6):2043-51.
Monte Carlo Simulations for Beam Delivery Line Design in Radiation Therapy with Heavy Ion Beams, February 2011,
F.Bourhaleb, A.Attili and G.Russo,
Applications of Monte Carlo Methods in Biology, Medicine and Other Fields of Science, 143(2-4):497-502, Epub 2010 Dec 3, Source InTech.
Analysis of the reliability of the local effect model for the use in carbon ion treatment planning systems, February 2011,
G.Russo, A.Attili, F.Bourhaleb, F.Marchetto, C.Peroni, E.Schmitt and D.Bertrand,
Radiation Protection Dosimetry, Volume 143, Issue 2-4, Pages 497–502.
IN SILICO DOSIMETRY, MONTE CARLO WEB APPLICATIONS FOR SIMULATIONS IN ADVANCED RADIATION THERAPY, RADIATION BIOLOGY AND RADIATION PROTECTION FIELDS, March 2012,
F.Bourhaleb, A.Attili, G.Russo and F.Mas Milian,
Radiotherapy and Oncology, 102(1):S129.
PlanIt: Planning Ion therapy open platform for treatment plans testing and comparing, February 2014,
F.Bourhaleb, F.Dalmasso, A.Attili, G.Russo and F.Mas Milian,
Radiotherapy and Oncology, Volume 110, S13-S14.
A novel algorithm for the calculation of physical and biological irradiation quantities in scanned ion beam therapy: The beamlet superposition approach, December 2015,
G.Russo, A.Attili, G.Battistoni, D.Bertrand, F.Bourhaleb, F.Cappucci, M.Ciocca, A.Mairani, F.M.Milian, S.Molinelli, M.C.Morone, S.Muraro, T.Orts, V.Patera, P.Sala, E.Schmitt, G.Vivaldo and F.Marchetto,
Physics in Medicine and Biology, 61(1):183-214, Project : Planning System Ion Therapy (TPS).
Web-interfaced Monte Carlo simulation for quality assurance in radiation therapy, February 2016,
F.Dalmasso, F.Bourhaleb, G.Russo, N.Franza, S.Spoto and A.Attili,
Physica Medica, 32(1):18.
'Survival': a simulation toolkit introducing a modular approach for radiobiological evaluations in ion beam therapy, April 2018,
L.Manganaro, G.Russo, F.Bourhaleb, F.Fausti, S.Giordanengo, V.Monaco, R.Sacchi, A.Vignati, R.Cirio and A.Attili,
Physics in Medicine & Biology, Volume 63, Number 8.
Anthropomorphic virtual phantoms are instruments widely used in nuclear medicine and radioprotection fields. In particular, CT images coming from anthropomorphic virtual patients are used instead of the real ones for the validation and optimisation of TPSs. Virtual phantoms are also used in radiopharmaceutical field because it is possible to simulate the substance path inside the human body and the resulting deposited dose in human healthy tissues.
VPatient3D is our product that has been designed starting from MASH supine model. Organs dimensions and position are modelled according to the ICRP Report 110; materials densities and compositions are also based on ICRP recommendations.
Design and Virtual Testing
Predictive simulations for design of devices, centers beam lines and full facilities and test of different materials
Custom simulation for commissioning
Once validated, the simulations will guide in a whole process of facility commissioning
Simulation for Design
The first step for any project of realizing any device or even a full facility is a good realistic design of it, thanks to which it's possible to spare time, effort and money as well.
This is a really critical phase for validating and getting permission to use a specific device or more a full facility, that needs a well benchmarked information to fulfill the requirements for using it. Our efficient solutions can speed up the process and identify any potential anomalies during the first runs.
Planning and management
Our most complete solutions include all necessary "ad-hoc" simulations needed in regular use of your facility. Thanks to our way in adapting what we offer to your daily need, we allow a better planning and high-quality results.